The 3 Ways Dyslexia is Experienced

The 3 Ways Dyslexia is Experienced

3 Ways Dyslexia is Experienced

The 3 Ways Dyslexia is Experienced

Dyslexia is more complex than what was originally understood. Research now demonstrates that there are 3 subsets of dyslexia; phonological awareness, rapid automated naming, and double deficit.

This was demonstrated by different patterns of brain activation of the participants when reading and rhyming words.

Phonological Dyslexia

Phonological Dyslexia is a brain disorder, that causes extreme difficulty in assembling words based off of what the words sound like.

It makes it extremely difficult to recognize and articulate the sound of spoken words. This makes it very difficult to sound out words.

Phonological Dyslexia is the most common form of dyslexia, and is considered synonymous with dyslexia itself.

Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) Deficit

Sometimes referred to as naming speed, rapid naming, or visual dyslexia, it is the speed with which one can name a series of familiar stimuli such as letters, numbers, colors and objects out loud, and reflects the automaticity of processes which are also important for reading.

This can result in saying the wrong word or not being able to say the right word because it’s on the tip of their tongue.

People with RAN will not have difficulties with recognizing and articulating words like people who have phonological dyslexia,  however RAN will cause one’s fluency and comprehension to be affected, because it takes longer to retrieve language information.

Double Deficit Dyslexia 

Double Deficit Dyslexia is as straightforward as it sounds. It is a deficit in both, phonological awareness (of the sounds in words) and RAN according to the double-deficit hypothesis.

This subtype is the least common and the hardest to remediate.

If you have concerns you might have dyslexia, contact us for a comprehensive evaluation and effective treatment.

The Pathways team of professionals has helped thousands of people with Dyslexia. We are Dedicated to effective and compassionate care for individuals with neurological challenges.

The post The 3 Ways Dyslexia is Experienced appeared first on Pathways Neuropsychology Associates.


Source: Pathways Neuropsychology
The 3 Ways Dyslexia is Experienced

Phonemic Awareness and Its Importance for Academic Skills

Phonemic Awareness and Its Importance for Academic Skills

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Phonemic Awareness and Its Importance for Academic Skills

Phonemic awareness is the ability to be aware of and use individual sounds, also known as phonemes, in spoken words. Phonemic awareness is crucial for developing fluent reading. Phonological awareness refers to the broader skill of recognizing and utilizing units or oral language. When a child attempts to learn to separate the word “cat” into three different sounds, phonemic awareness is required in order to say or speak the word. Phonemic awareness is an important ability that helps children with reading, reading comprehension, and spelling skills and abilities.

Among individuals with dyslexia, phonemic awareness is an area of much difficulty. In fact, phonemic awareness is a significant factor that indicates a child’s level of reading proficiency, as children who are better able to differentiate sounds and combine words have greater reading abilities and are better able to understand what they are reading (i.e., reading comprehension). These abilities directly influence overall academic achievement, as children with phonemic awareness are also better able to understand information in other subjects as well since the majority of academic tasks require reading and reading comprehension, especially as children get older.

Phonemic awareness contributes to another skill known as phonics, which is the manner in which letters and sounds are related. When a child can verbalize words they can use this skill to sound out and read printed words.

Problems with phonemic awareness in individuals with dyslexia can be explained at the neurological level, as the areas of the brain that represent speech sounds and higher level processing of speech sounds show areas of weakness among these individuals.

Research has shown that specific training of phonemic awareness to the advanced level is a necessary and important component for any effective treatment  program for dyslexia.

The Pathways team of professionals has helped thousands of people with Dyslexia. We are Dedicated to effective and compassionate care for individuals with neurological challenges.

The post Phonemic Awareness and Its Importance for Academic Skills appeared first on Pathways Neuropsychology Associates.


Source: Pathways Neuropsychology
Phonemic Awareness and Its Importance for Academic Skills

Classroom Accommodations for Dyslexia

Classroom Accommodations for Dyslexia

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Classroom Accommodations for Dyslexia

In addition to engaging in our signature training system (The Power Learning Tower), an effective treatment for dyslexia is accommodations and learning strategies that are individually tailored to the person’s needs. Although there are similarities in the signs and symptoms of dyslexia, each person will have their own unique issues, therefore treatment and accommodations must differ.

Academic accommodations for students with dyslexia are critical for short-term and long-term educational success. The right accommodations can not only allow the student to perform to his/her true academic potential, but also prevent the student from experiencing issues with self-esteem related to learning difficulties related to dyslexia.

Accommodations create a smooth and organized classroom experience that ultimately even benefits the class as a whole. Below are examples of beneficial and commonly used class accommodations for students with dyslexia.

Accessibility to Educational Material

Students with dyslexia are often provided with the teacher’s notes or other class material or material in audio format. This serves a useful function because the student does not have to hear and/or see the class material for the first time when the teacher presents it to the class. This potentially creates a situation where the student with dyslexia may become overwhelmed with information, thus creating difficulty. By accessing class material ahead of time (and in alternative formats), the student can prepare him/herself for the lesson and then truly benefit from when the teacher presents the material to the class.

Additional Time

Similar to accessing class material ahead of time, being provided with additional time on tests, assignments, and even homework, allows the student with dyslexia to focus on the material and not on other factors (e.g., a deadline) that may interfere with optimal performance. Since students with dyslexia have difficulty processing certain academic material, being provided with additional time will remove much stress on the student, allowing full focus on the actual content and the learning experience.

Alternative Response Format

Students with dyslexia are often permitted to provide verbal responses to test questions. This is yet another accommodation that evaluates the student’s true knowledge of the material without letting reading and writing skills to interfere or block the student’s ability to express what they know.

Location

A common accommodation is allowing students with dyslexia to complete tests in a separate room. This serves several functions, such as allowing the student to use notes and other academic aids and materials without other students watching, as accommodations can sometimes cause students with dyslexia to feel shame or embarrassment in the presence of peers. In addition, a separate and private testing location can allow the student greater focus on the task.

Avoid Timed Tasks

Individuals with dyslexia should not be given time constraints for tasks involving reading. As a result of their difficulty, anything that involves reading (e.g., math word problems, multiple choice exams) will take the individual longer periods of time to complete. This is why individuals with dyslexia are permitted ample time (often double the time, or more, that is typically allotted for a task) to complete assignments or exams.

Writing

A common accommodation is allowing a student to use a laptop computer to type responses to assignments or during exams. This prevents fatigue while writing and allows the student to use a spell checker. The purpose is to assess the individual’s true knowledge and prevent issues with writing from disrupting the individual’s ability to express what they know.

Using a Scribe

Individuals with dyslexia are provided a scribe, which is a person who writes down answers for the individual during exams while the individual with dyslexia verbally dictates information. This allows the individual to focus on their knowledge of material without being burdened by handwriting, spelling, grammar, etc.

Hearing Instructions

Individuals with dyslexia are often permitted to have exams and class assignments read to them rather than having to read instructions themselves. This prevents confusion of directions, which can greatly affect the child’s performance on the task and failure to truly assess the individual’s knowledge of material.

The Pathways team of professionals has helped thousands of people with Dyslexia. We are Dedicated to effective and compassionate care for individuals with neurological challenges.

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Source: Pathways Neuropsychology
Classroom Accommodations for Dyslexia

Best accommodations for Dyslexia

Best accommodations for Dyslexia

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Best Accommodations for Dyslexia

In addition to engaging in our signature training system (The Power Learning Tower), an effective treatment for dyslexia is accommodations and learning strategies that are individually tailored to the person’s needs. Although there are similarities in the signs and symptoms of dyslexia, each person will have their own unique issues, therefore treatment and accommodations must differ. There is no known cure for dyslexia, but accommodations and learning strategies can contribute to the disorder no longer affecting the person’s ability to read, learn, and even enjoy academic tasks.

Avoid Timed Tasks

Individuals with dyslexia should not be given time constraints for tasks involving reading. As a result of their difficulty, anything that involves reading (e.g., math word problems, multiple choice exams) will take the individual longer periods of time to complete. This is why individuals with dyslexia are permitted ample time (often double the time, or more, that is typically allotted for a task) to complete assignments or exams.

Visual Accommodations

Oftentimes, the individual with dyslexia is permitted to use colored overlays or “reading rulers” while completing exams or assignments in order to prevent distraction on a page when reading and to assist with visually tracking of written information.

Writing

A common accommodation is allowing a student to use a laptop computer to type responses to assignments or during exams. This prevents fatigue while writing and allows the student to use a spell checker. The purpose is to assess the individual’s true knowledge and prevent issues with writing from disrupting the individual’s ability to express what they know.

Using a Scribe

Individuals with dyslexia are provided a scribe, which is a person who writes down answers for the individual during exams while the individual with dyslexia verbally dictates information. This allows the individual to focus on their knowledge of material without being burdened by handwriting, spelling, grammar, etc.

Hearing Instructions

Individuals with dyslexia are often permitted to have exams and class assignments read to them rather than having to read instructions themselves. This prevents confusion of directions, which can greatly affect the child’s performance on the task and failure to truly assess the individual’s knowledge of material.

The Pathways team of professionals has helped thousands of people with Dyslexia. We are Dedicated to effective and compassionate care for individuals with neurological challenges.

The post Best accommodations for Dyslexia appeared first on Pathways Neuropsychology Associates.


Source: Pathways Neuropsychology
Best accommodations for Dyslexia

Dyslexia Signs & Symptoms by Age Group

Dyslexia Signs & Symptoms by Age Group

Dyslexia Signs & Symptoms by Age Group

Dyslexia Signs & Symptoms by Age Group

Preschool

Even before exposure to reading material begins in the classroom, children can demonstrate signs and symptoms of dyslexia. The disorder can affect the child’s verbal language skills, which are the precursors to reading abilities. Signs and symptoms to look for in preschool age children include:

  • Mispronunciation of words (e.g., aminal instead of animal)
  • The child is not as talkative as other children and vocabulary is limited
  • Confuses names of objects (e.g., if you ask the child to get his/her socks, he/she will get their shoes)
  • Difficulty with learning the alphabet, numbers, colors, and shapes
  • Difficulty learning rhyming words (e.g., cat and hat)

Early to Mid Grade School

As academic material becomes more challenging, the signs and symptoms of dyslexia will become more pronounced, causing the child’s grades to suffer, and even causing the child emotional or self-esteem issues as a result of difficulty with reading. When children begin to learn to read, issues with phonemic awareness (i.e., decoding words into separate sounds) become apparent, along with other signs and symptoms such as:

  • Confusing the sounds of the letters of the alphabet
  • Inability to read small “function words” such as that, an, in
  • Omitting parts of words when reading
  • Confusing words that sound alike
  • Poor spelling
  • Difficulty sounding out words to pronounce the word correctly
  • Avoidance of reading aloud in class due to embarrassment
  • Slow reading
  • Difficulty understanding what he/she reads
  • Difficulty recalling what happens in a story
  • Becoming fatigued from doing reading tasks

High School and Beyond

As the child reaches adolescence and young adulthood, dyslexia becomes evident in the teenagers understanding of more abstract and complex ideas and information. Examples of signs and symptoms include:

  • Mispronunciation of names or tripping over parts of a word
  • Confusing names that sound alike or difficulty remembering names
  • Spoken vocabulary is smaller than listening vocabulary
  • Substituting made up words when reading out loud
  • Trouble promouncing uncommon, unique or strange words
  • Saying “ummm” quite often while speaking due to difficulty finding words
  • Continued difficulty with writing assignments and spelling
  • Slow reading or lack of fluency when reading

The Pathways team of professionals has helped thousands of people with Dyslexia. We are Dedicated to effective and compassionate care for individuals with neurological challenges.

The post Dyslexia Signs & Symptoms by Age Group appeared first on Pathways Neuropsychology Associates.


Source: Pathways Neuropsychology
Dyslexia Signs & Symptoms by Age Group

Dyslexia: The Assessment & Diagnostic Process

Dyslexia: The Assessment & Diagnostic Process

Dyslexia: The Assessment & Diagnostic Process

Dyslexia: The Assessment & Diagnostic Process

When an individual is suspected of having dyslexia, they are referred for a Psychoeducational Evaluation (this evaluation is also known as a Psychological, Learning Disability, or a Neuropsychological Evaluation), typically by a teacher or sometimes by the child’s parent who notices that the child is struggling with reading or that the child’s grades are suffering as a result of reading difficulties. Dyslexia must be evaluated by examining the individual’s skills and abilities in language, phonological awareness, reading, writing, and spelling.

The first and crucial step is gathering a comprehensive history

At PNS, Dr. Gordon first meets with the child and the child’s parents (if the examinee is a child) or the adult individual suspected of having dyslexia and ask many questions related to background history, such as ages that the individual reached developmental milestones (e.g., crawling, first words), academic functioning, as well as social, emotional, and behavioral functioning, and family history of learning or mental health problems. Information regarding the individual’s academic history, reading history and history of symptoms is also gathered.

The skills & abilities that are tested

We then conduct a neuropsychological testing evaluations for dyslexia utilizing assessments that are administered to the individual. The person suspected of having dyslexia meets with a qualified professional individually and is administered the assessments that consist of the following tasks:

-Intellectual Functioning
-Word Reading & Word identification
-Reading Fluency
-Reading Comprehension
-Letter sound knowledge + phonological blending=phonic decoding
-Phonological Skills (Manipulations tasks: deletion, substitution, reversal)
-Rapid Naming
-Spelling
-Listening Comprehension
-Auditory Processing & Language Processing
-Vocabulary
-Working Memory
-Sustained Attention
-Mental Processing Speed

There are numerous tests used to diagnose dyslexia and there is no single assessment that can diagnose the disorder on its own.

Combining test results with background information

After all information is gathered, the qualified professional scores the assessments and a psychoeducational report is created that integrates all assessment results and the individual’s background history. The psychoeducational report will have a diagnosis of Specific Learning Disorder With impairment in reading (i.e., dyslexia) if the individual meets criteria.

What is the purpose of giving a diagnosis of dyslexia?

A critical section of the psychoeducational report is the recommendations section. This section includes specific recommendations from the qualified professionals that are individually tailored to the person with dyslexia and are meant to assist the individual in academic settings, as well as the individual’s home life. This is the ultimate purpose of diagnosing dyslexia in the first place: So that the individual can receive assistance and the proper intervention for the disorder so he/she can succeed academically or in any setting where the individual is affected by dyslexia.

The Pathways team of professionals has helped thousands of people with Dyslexia. We are Dedicated to effective and compassionate care for individuals with neurological challenges.

The post Dyslexia: The Assessment & Diagnostic Process appeared first on Pathways Neuropsychology Associates.


Source: Pathways Neuropsychology
Dyslexia: The Assessment & Diagnostic Process

What is Dyslexia?

What is Dyslexia?

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What is Dyslexia?

Dyslexia, also known as Reading Disorder, is a learning disorder that causes individuals difficulty with reading individual words or sentences and pronouncing words. Individuals with dyslexia can also struggle with other skills related to reading, such as reading comprehension, spelling, and writing. The disorder is typically identified in early childhood, when children begin to learn letter sounds and other pre-reading and reading skills, but issues with reading can remain through adulthood if left untreated.

At its core, dyslexia is a disorder of phonological awareness (the ability to recognize and manipulate the sound properties of spoken words) and more specifically phonemic awareness (the ability to recognize and manipulate individual phonemes (sounds) in spoken words). Dyslexia is caused by particular ways that the brain develops and processes information causing a chain reaction of events that occur at the neurological level. The individual with dyslexia has difficulty understanding the speech sounds in a word, understanding how individual letters represent a sound, and being able to put the sounds together to read or say the word. This process is also known as phonological awareness and it is the primary difficulty that characterizes dyslexia. There are specific regions of the brain that control these processes, but the brain of an individual with dyslexia functions differently in those areas.

Individuals with dyslexia can be talented or even gifted in other areas and subjects and oftentimes have special skills and abilities in the arts, sciences, math, computers, technology, music, business, sales, and sports. Nowadays, teachers and academic staff are better educated on identifying and providing assistance for children with dyslexia, but as recent as a few decades ago, children with dyslexia were considered to have intellectual problems, behavioral issues, or were called lazy by teachers, academic staff, and/or parents/caretakers. Children with dyslexia were not screened properly and were not provided the appropriate interventions, causing them to fall behind in other subjects.

Fortunately, research on dyslexia has made great advancements, contributing to improved assessment methods, the provision of accommodations in the classroom, and alternative methods of teaching children with dyslexia how to not only learn to read, but also to enjoy reading. Current research shows that with the right treatment substantial improvements can be made in improving reading and reading efficiency.  At PNA we use the most current research to both accurately assess and effectively and successfully treat dyslexia.

The Pathways team of professionals has helped thousands of people with Dyslexia. We are Dedicated to effective and compassionate care for individuals with neurological challenges.

The post What is Dyslexia? appeared first on Pathways Neuropsychology Associates.


Source: Pathways Neuropsychology
What is Dyslexia?

Dyslexia Facts

Dyslexia Facts

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Dyslexia Facts

Fact #1: Dyslexia can be successfully treated!

  • Research suggests that the most severely reading-disabled students can make an average of a standard deviation of improvement on nationally normed reading tests!  The key to a successful intervention, research has shown us, includes:

-Directly teaching phonemic awareness to the advanced level

-Teaching and reinforcing phonic skills and phonic decoding

-Opportunities for reading connected text

See our Dyslexia Treatments

Fact #2: Dyslexia affects as much as 10% of children.

  • This means that in a given school classroom, there is a good chance that at least one or more children have dyslexia.
  • States are passing laws related to dyslexia, mandating that children in Kindergarten and 1st grade receive free dyslexia screenings.
  • This is an efficient practice so that we don’t have to wait for the child to begin demonstrating academic issues in order to start the evaluation process, thus preventing the child from falling behind academically and preventing any emotional consequences of the child feeling frustrated due to inability to understand reading education.

Fact #3: Dyslexia can run in families.

  • It is common for children with dyslexia to have a parent, grandparent, and/or sibling(s) who also had reading difficulties or were formally diagnosed with dyslexia.
  • Knowledge of family history helps so that parents can consider having their child screened at a young age.

Fact #4: Dyslexia is no longer considered something that children must “deal with” on their own and attempt to “blend in” so as not to stand out or interrupt the class.

  • Dyslexia is considered a learning disability, and parents of children (as well as the child him/herself), have rights. The child with dyslexia can receive accommodations in the classroom in order to facilitate a successful learning process for the child both inside and outside of the classroom.

The Pathways team of professionals has helped thousands of people with Dyslexia. We are Dedicated to effective and compassionate care for individuals with neurological challenges.

The post Dyslexia Facts appeared first on Pathways Neuropsychology Associates.


Source: Pathways Neuropsychology
Dyslexia Facts

Dyslexia Myths

Dyslexia Myths

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Dyslexia Myths

There are several myths associated with dyslexia, many of which have fortunately been clarified and better understood as a result of years of research on the manifestation and characteristics of the disorder. It is important to understand the myths surrounding dyslexia in order to eliminate stereotypes and stigma that is placed on individuals with dyslexia.

Myth #1: Letter reversals.

Somehow the myth of mixing up the letters in a word (also known as letter mirroring) got attached to dyslexia (e.g., spelling the word “jumpeb” as “jumdep”). This is a definite myth because individuals with dyslexia do not necessarily reverse letters, or at least this is not a symptom of dyslexia and instead could be a visual processing issue.

Myth #2: Children with dyslexia are really good at math.

Not so fast. The assumption that because a child has difficulty with reading means that they must be “math minded” is a myth. A child with dyslexia may very well be good at math, but dyslexia can also cause issues related to sequencing, causing the child difficulty with completing math that involves steps, and the child can also struggle with math language, which is often necessary to solve math problems.

Myth #3: More boys have dyslexia than girls.

There are equal numbers of boys and girls with dyslexia and it is a myth that it is a male-dominant disorder. This myth is important to debunk because it can prevent girls with dyslexia from being identified or it can mean that teachers/academic staff will assume that boys have more difficulty with reading. The notion that girls are “better at reading and writing” and boys are “better at math and science” is a culturally conceived (and mythical) belief. There are no differences between the neurological functioning or learning abilities between boys and girls that will create a greater (or lesser) likelihood of developing dyslexia.

The Pathways team of professionals has helped thousands of people with Dyslexia. We are Dedicated to effective and compassionate care for individuals with neurological challenges.

The post Dyslexia Myths appeared first on Pathways Neuropsychology Associates.


Source: Pathways Neuropsychology
Dyslexia Myths

Therapy Podcast – Empathy during relationships, Following through on diets

Therapy Podcast – Empathy during relationships, Following through on diets


In this Podcast with Dr Gordon: Empathy during relationships, Following through on diets

The Pathways team of professionals has helped thousands of people with brain injuries. We are Dedicated to effective and compassionate care for individuals with neurological challenges.

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Source: Pathways Neuropsychology
Therapy Podcast – Empathy during relationships, Following through on diets